Dr. R.J. Shephard is Professor Emeritus of Applied Physiology in the Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education at the University of Toronto, and a consultant in the Exercise Sciences. He was Director of the School of Physical and Health Education (now the Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education) at the University of Toronto for twelve years (1979-1991), and he served as Director of the University of Toronto Graduate Programme in Exercise Sciences from 1964 to 1985.
During his career, he also served as a consultant to the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, the Toronto Rehabilitation Centre, the Directorate of Active Living, Health & Welfare Canada, tand the University of Québec (Trois Rivières). He has held academic appointments in the Dept. of Physiology and the Institute of Medical Sciences at the University of Toronto, the Centre des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Québec à Trois Rivières, and the Hôpital Pitié Salpetrière, Université de Paris, and was Canadian Tire Acceptance Limited Resident Scholar in Health Studies at Brock University from 1994 to 1998.
Prior to moving to Toronto in 1964, he held appointments in the Department of Cardiology (Guy’s Hospital, University of London), the R.A.F. Institute of Aviation Medicine, the Department of Preventive Medicine (University of Cincinnati) and the U.K. Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment (Porton Down, U.K.).
He holds four scientific and medical degrees from London University (B.Sc., M.B.B.S., Ph.D. and M.D.) and honorary doctorates from the University of Toronto, Gent University (Belgium), the Université de Montréal, the Université de Québec à Trois Rivières, and the University of Guelph. In 2014, he was appointed to the Order of Canada "for his pioneering work in the field of exercise science and for promoting the health benefits of physical activity to Canadians." He also holds the Honour Award of the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, the Honor Award and a Citation from the American College of Sports Medicine, and the Honor Award of the North American Society for Pediatric Exercise Medicine. He has been a President of the Canadian Association of Sports Sciences, a President of the American College of Sports Medicine, Editor-in-Chief of the Year Book of Sports Medicine, founding editor of the Exercise Immunology Review, Editor in Chief of the Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, Associate Editor of the International Journal of Sports Medicine, and a member of the Editorial Board of many other journals.
As a part of his research in many facets of sport, fitness, exercise and environmental physiology, biochemistry and immunology, he has been author, part-author or editor of some 100 books on these topics in able-bodied individuals and those with various types of disability, and he has published some 2000 scientific papers on related issues.
Award of the Order of Canada, September 2014
Left to right:
Lt. Governor of B.C., Judith Guichon, Roy Shephard, Muriel Shephard, Rachel Shephard and Rob Kirkham (Mayor of Squamish)
BIRTH: London, England. Canadian Citizen.
DOMESTIC STATUS: Married with two daughters
Guy’s Hospital Medical School, University of London, 1946-1952
Open Scholarship to Haberdasher Aske Public School, 1940 (Not taken up owing to World War II)
Central Welsh Board School Certificate 1944 (with distinction in English language, English Literature, Physics, Chemistry, Maths, History, French and Latin)
Central Welsh Board Higher School Certificate, 1946 (with distinction in Chemistry & Physics, credit in biology, awarded a State Scholarship)
B.Sc. Special (Physiol.), 1st class Hons., 1949 (awarded University post-graduate studentship as examination candidate with highest aggregate mark)
M.B., B.S., 1952 (distinguished in Forensic Medicine and Public Health). Degree equivalent to Canadian and U.S. M.D. degree.
Ph.D. (Science), 1954. Supervisor W.R. Spurrell. Thesis topic: “The Carbon Dioxide Balance Sheets of the Body: Their Determination in normal subjects and in cases of Congenital Heart Disease, with a consideration of their significance.”
M.D. (London, post-doctoral medical degree), 1959. Thesis
topic: "The sequelae of segmental resection and other forms of thoracic
treatment in flying personnel.”
Doctorate in Physical Education (Hon. Caus.), University of
Doctorate, Honoris Causae, Université de Montréal, 1992.
Doctorates of Laws (Hon. Caus.),
University of Toronto, 2006 (see details)
and University of
Doctorate, honoris causae, Université de Québec à Trois
Rivières, 2009 (see photos).
Doctorate of Science, Honoris Causae, University of Guelph, 2013.
Member of the Order of Canada, 2014.
CARDIAC DEPARTMENT, GUY’S HOSPITAL, LONDON UNIVERSITY, 1952-54.
Conjoint appointments as Research Fellow to Cardiac Department and University Post- graduate Student in Physiology. Duties included the cardiac catheterization, operational monitoring, and clinical follow-up of all cases of congenital heart disease attending Guy's hospital over this period, and basic research on cardiac and respiratory physiology in congenital heart disease.
R.A.F. INSTITUTE OF AVIATION MEDICINE, FARNBOROUGH, 1954-56.
Commission as Flying Officer (1yr), and Flight Lieutenant (1 yr). Duties included basic high altitude physiology research, and the measurement of pulmonary function, the assessment of the fitness of aircrew after segmental resection for pulmonary tuberculosis, and occasional lectures to RAF medical officers, and NATO courses in Aviation physiology.
UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI, DEPT. OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 1956-58.
Fulbright Exchange Fellow and Assistant Professor in Department of Prof. J.J. Phair, Professor of Preventive Medicine & Applied Physiology. Duties primarily concerned with effects of air pollutants on respiratory function, including industrial and domestic field survey work, and development of apparatus for the field measurement of environmental variables and of pulmonary function, with advanced statistical analysis of results. Occasional lectures on Applied Physiology were given to graduate students in the Kettering Laboratory.
CHEMICAL DEFENCE EXPERIMENTAL ESTABLISHMENT, PORTON DOWN, U.K., 1958-64.
Appointed as Senior Scientific Officer in 1958, and promoted to Principal Scientific Officer in 1959. Duties were in the Applied Physiology Section of the Establishment, and concerned the broad range of human factors affecting the physical capacity of humans and their response to noxious agents, including problems of personality, motivation, training, and the wearing of protective clothing.
ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS SINCE COMING TO CANADA
Professor of Applied Physiology, School of Physical &
Health Education and Department of Preventive Medicine and
Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, and
Director of Fitness Research Unit/Life Style Centre, 1964-1994.
Professor Emeritus 1994-present.
Professor, Graduate School, University of Toronto, 1964-1998.
Professor of Physiology, University of Toronto, 1968-1980.
Professor, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 1968-1980.
Director, School of Physical and Health Education, University of Toronto, 1979-1991.
Professor, Centre for Cardiovascular Research, University of Toronto, 1993-2000.
Professor, Department of Physical Education, York University, Toronto, ON., 1969-70.
Professeur, Dept. des Sciences de la Santé, Trois Rivières, 1970-1978, (Director of Department, 1974-1975).
Professeur Aggegé, Faculté de Médicine, Université de Paris VI, Hôpital Pitié Salpetrière, 1985-86.
Resident Scholar in Health Studies, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON., 1994-1998.
Consultant, Toronto Rehabilitation Centre, 1968-2002.
Consultant, Gage Research Institute, Toronto Hospitals (Asthma research), 1971-2002.
Consultant, and subsequently Visiting Scientist, Defence & Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine 1978-2000.
Consultant, Institute for Aerobics Research, Dallas, 1993-2000.
Consultant, School of P & H.E., Brockport, NY., 1993-1997.
Consultant to Fitness Canada/Active Living, Health Canada, 1964-present.
Consultant to School of P & H.E., University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, 1997-2000.
Consultant to Dept d’éducation physique, Universite de Québec à Trois Rivières, 1997-present.
Consultant to Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, 2001-2002.
Consultant to Finnish National Academy, 2001-2003.
Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences,
Editor-in-Chief, Yearbook of Sports Medicine, 1979-2013.
Editor in Chief, Exercise Immunology Review, 1994-1998.
Associate editor, 1998-2002.
Associate Editor, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 1993-2005.
Section Editor, Medicine and Science in Sports, 1969-1975.
Member of Editorial Boards of:
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1988-present.
Rivista Brasilia de Ciencia e Movimento, 1987-to date.
Human Biology, 1970-1988.
Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 1980-2005.
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 1984 to date.
Sports Medicine, 1984 to date.
Clinical Sports Medicine, 1990-1992.
Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1990 to date.
Pediatric Exercise Science, 1989-200.
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 1990 to date.
American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, 1992-2000.
Hermes (Belgium), 1973 to date.
Annali del ISEF, 1975 to date.
Revista Cubana de Medicina del Deporte y la Cultura Fisica, 1991 to date.
Acta Ciencas del Deporte, 1991 to date.
Science in the Olympic Sports (Kiev), 1990 to date.
Investigacion y deporte (Spain), 1998-to date.
Medicina Sportiva (Krakow), 1999 to date.
Injury Prevention 1999-2007.
Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1999-2002.
Clinical Exercise Physiology, 1999-2005.
Current Sports Medicine Reports, 2001 to 2013.
External Reviewer for Journal of Applied Physiology, Canadian Medical Association Journal, American Journal of Nutrition, Annals of Human Biology, Chest, Journal of Gerontology, Journal of the American Geriatric Society, and many other major journals in the Health Sciences.
Founder Member, Board of Examiners, Canadian Academy of Sports Medicine.
Research interests have encompassed the broad range of interactions between the active human subject and the environment in both health and disease. Specific foci have included:
1. Exercise immunology, including applications to prevention
and treatment of cancer, upper respiratory and H.I.V.
infections, sepsis and burns.
2. Occupational fitness and workplace productivity, with particular reference to equal opportunity legislation.
3. Population fitness, with special interests in circumpolar health and the acculturation of indigenous peoples.
4. Physiological effects of growth and aging as seen in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
5. Fitness and health of the person with paraplegia and quadriplegia.
6. Impact upon human performance of passive exposure to cigarette smoke and other air pollutants.
7. The health belief model, and its application to compliance with exercise therapy.
8. Assessment and treatment of obesity.
9. Impact of cardiorespiratory disease upon exercise and training responses in ischemic heart disease, congestive failure, congenital heart disease, cardiac transplantation and chronic obstructive lung disease.
10. Economics of fitness and health policy analysis.
11. Interactions of exercise, fitness, acclimation and the use of protective clothing in hot and cold environments.
12. Physical ability of blind, deaf and learning disabled students.
13. Ergonomics (sleep deprivation, human rights legislation and physiology of employment).
14. Sports Medicine.
15. Factors limiting human performance under various environmental conditions.
16. Ramadan and the Muslim athlete
17. Exercise and HIV infection.
Dr. Shephard is the former Director of the School of Physical
& Health Education at the University of Toronto. He was also
the first Director of the Graduate Programme in Exercise
Sciences within the Graduate Dept. of Community Health, and
Director of the Fitness Research Unit/Lifestyle Centre, formed
with the support of the Directorate of Fitness & Amateur
Sport in 1964. This programme now supports as many as 100
graduate students annually by research awards which in some
years have totalled more than $500,000. A professional Master's
programme in Lifestyle counselling has recently been added to
the offerings under this programme. Studies of fitness, health,
environment and sports medicine have been pursued in
collaboration with many Canadian institutions including
(1) the Toronto Rehabilitation Centre, (2) Brock University
(Industrial Fitness and Ergonomic Studies), (3) the Gage
Research Institute (asthma and air pollution research), (4) the
Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine
(environmental physiology, exercise immunology), (5) the Toronto
Hospitals (cardiac physiology), (6) the Health Science Centre,
University of Québec at Trois Rivières (longitudinal studies of
child growth and development), (7) Lyndhurst Lodge and the
Centre François Charon, Québec (studies of disabled
populations), (8) the University of British Columbia
(Recommendations on physical activityscreening and prescription
to Health Canada) and (9) the Eastern Arctic Research Laboratory
(population studies of the Inuit). Some 100 books and over 2000
research papers have appeared on topics ranging from pure and
applied physiology, biochemistry and immune function through
fitness, lifestyle, health promotion and sports medicine to
industrial injury, cardiac rehabilitation, chest disease,
smoking withdrawal, the effects of air pollutants on human
health, responses to passive smoking, heat and cold exposure,
child health, aging, adapted physical activity, sleep
deprivation, the psychology of exercise perceptions and
behaviour, industrial productivity and the costs of health care.
During his years in Toronto, Dr. Shephard also served on many University of Toronto committees, including the Principals, Deans and Directors, the Councils of the School of Physical & Health Education, of the Dept. of Athletics and Recreation and of the Faculty of Medicine, the Health Sciences Board, the Academic Board and the Graduate Programme in Community Health. As Director of the School of Physical Education & Health, he was also ex officio member of all committees within the School of Physical & Health Education.
2. TEACHING RESPONSIBILITIES.
During his years at the University of Toronto, Dr. Shephard taught a variety of graduate and undergraduate courses, and supervised many post-doctoral, doctoral and M.Sc. students. He also initiated the Exercise Physiology programme at York University, and taught courses at l’Université de Québec a Trois Rivières and l’Université de Paris VI (Pitié Salpetrière). As Director of the School of Physical & Health Education, he had responsibility for the introduction of a new, health sciences oriented 4-year honours bachelor’s degree programme, and the development of the post-doctoral, Ph.D. and M.Sc. programmes in Exercise Sciences of the University of Toronto.
3. GRADUATE STUDENT SUPERVISION.
The Exercise Sciences programme developed by Dr.Shephard was the first in Canada to offer a Ph.D. in the area of Exercise and Applied Physiology. For some 30 years, Dr. Shephard supervised groups of up to 10 Ph.D. and M.Sc. candidates in a broadly based programme that included formal course offerings in applied physiology, exercise physiology, biochemistry and immunology, environmental physiology, biomechanics, ergonomics, sports medicine, fitness and adapted physical activity.
SELECTED LIST OF RESEARCH AWARDS
Health & Welfare Canada
(with F. Silverman)
Possible interactions of recent smoking and ozone exposure. 1978/80 $52,889
Factors influencing Fitness and Life Adjustmentof disabled individuals 1982/84 $82,100
Pulmonary Function responses to passive smoking and the influence of suggestibility 1982/84 $138,102
Fitness and training response of blind and deaf
(with A. Rode)
Acculturation of Inuit 1988/89 $14,187.60
1990/91 $ 66,217.07
1991/92 $ 39,740.00
Health and Fitness of Soviet Inuit 1991/93 $120,000.00
Determination of lipid hydroperoxides in Inuit 1995/96 $25,000
Dept. of Supply and Services, Canada
Research on muscle strength, obesity, fat loss in cold, sleep
Combined strength & endurance training 1982/83 $ 27,698
Sustained operations research 1984/7 $ 9,992
Muscle substrate utilization during shivering thermogenesis 1987/8 $ 19,525
Immune function and exercise 1990/92 $132,540
Immune function, heat, exercise 1991/4 $145,430
Training and heat acclimation 1991/92 $ 26,999
Physical exercise and natural killer cell function 1993/96 $239,811
Sepsis and inflammatory response mechanisms: a physical training model 1996-2000 $445,572
Immune responses to heat and exercise: elucidation of mechanisms 1996-2000 $223,890
Workshop on immune responses to inflammation 1997-1998 $59,000
Directorate of Fitness & Amateur Sport, Canada
Influence of an employee fitness programme upon industrial
Canada Fitness Survey: International Comparisons 1983/84 $10,000.00
Follow-up of Employee Fitness Programmes at Canada Life 1983/84 $14,000.00
Geriatric Benefits of enhanced physical activity 1983/84 $19,000.00
Follow-up of employee fitness programme compliance 1984/85 $18,000
Physical activity and aging 1984/85 $19,000
Replacement fluids in soccer 1985/87 $18,000
Soccer testing procedures 1986/88 $ 6,950
Evaluation of PAR-Q procedures 1988/89 $ 9,000
Evaluation of fitness standards 1991/93 $35,000
Evidence-based assessments of physical activity needs in health & disease
Revision of Par-Q and Par-Med-X protocls (with Darren Warburton) 2007/2012
Ministry of Health, Ontario
Physical Fitness of
Central and peripheral adaptation in the lower limb disabled 1981/82 $48,180.00
Studies of disabled adults 1982/83 $14,700.00
Ontario Ministry of Environment
Air pollution and jogging 1986/88 $200,000
U.S. Olympic Association
Immune function in athletes l988/89 $ 15,000
Ontario Thoracic Society
Measurement of the oxygen cost of ventilation 1988/89 $ 10,300
Régie d’Assurance Auto du QuebecPhysiology of hemiplegic individuals 1989/90 $ 4,500
March of Dimes
Physiology of hemiplegic individuals 1989/90 $ 5,000
(With Luc Noreau and Centre Francois Charron)
Ministry of Culture and Recreation, Ontario
Adaptation of CSFT for disabled individuals
(With P. Longmuir) 1991/92 $10,000
1993/94 $ 6,247
SELECTED COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIPS
Member or former member:
Physiological Society, U.K.
American Physiological Society
Ergonomics Research Society, U.K.
Canadian Circumpolar Health Society.
Canadian Society for Gerontology.
Ontario Gerontological Association.
British Medical Association.
Canadian Society for Circumpolar Health.
IUPS Commission on Environmental Physiology.
IUPS Commission on Clinical Physiology.
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation.
Canadian Physiological Society.
Medical Research Society, U.K.
Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation.
Chairperson, CAHPER 50th Anniversary Convention, 1983.
Chairperson, IUPS Satellite Symposium on Endurance Exercise, 1986.
Chairperson, International Conference on Exercise as a model of sepsis, Toronto 1997.
Member of organizing committee for many major International
Exercise Fitness and Health (Toronto) 1988, and 1992.
Heart-Health (Victoria) 1992.
Physical Activity, Aging and Sports (Helsinki) 1992; (Heidelberg) 1996, (Orlando) 1999.
Adapted Physical Activity (Quebec). 1994.
International Dose/response Physical Fitness & Health Symposium, Hockley Valley, Ontario 2000.
Rapporteur, WHO Expert Committee on Fitness Assessment, 1966.
Director, IBP Expert Group on Measurement of Work Capacity 1967.
Variety Village, Scarborough, Ontario.
Canadian Soccer Association Medical Committee
Nippon Turtles (Tokyo)
U.S. Health and Nutrition Survey
U.S. Postal Service
Fitness and Amateur Sport and Health Canada
Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute
US Equal Employment Opportunities Commission
Canadian Human Rights Commission
Institute for Aerobics Research, Dallas.
Toronto Rehabilitation Centre
Gage Research Institute
University of New Brunswick, Fredericton
Université de Québec à Trois Rivières
School of Physical Education, Brockport,NY.
Canadian Tire Acceptance Ltd.
Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, Toronto
WHO Regional Health University of South Carolina, Columbus, SC
Pennington Medical Center, Baton Rouge, LA.
L. Folinsbee (MRC) 1973/74.
H. Vandewalle (Pitié Salpetrière, Paris, 1986.
E. Varik, University of Tartu, 1988/9.
J. Levenish, Univ. of Riga, 1990.
S. Shinkai, Univ. Ehime, Japan, 1991/2.
M. Sukuoshi, Tokyo 1993/4.
V. Natale, Sao Paulo 1996/1997.
I. Brenner, Toronto, 1997-1999.
S. Rhind, Toronto, 1998-2000.
G. Gannon, Toronto, 1998-2000.
K. Ojiri, Tokyo 1999-2000.
SELECTED SUCCESSFUL M.Sc. and Ph.D. Candidates
V. Niinimaa Ph.D. 1978 . Oro-nasal distribution of
D. Paterson Ph.D. 1979. Training after myocardial infarction and cardiovascular function.
P. Pimm M.Sc. 1979. Acute effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on healthy young adults.
T. Verde M.Sc. 1981. Ionic composition of sweat.
M. Cox Ph.D. 1981. The influence of an employee fitness programme upon jobperformance, absenteeism & productivity.
G. Godin Ph.D. 1983. Psychosocial factors influencing intentions to exercise of young students.
J. Arnold M.Sc. 1984 .Lipid profile, physical fitness and job activity of Canadian postal workers.
M. Lee M.Sc. 1984. Training responses of blind students.
G. Davis Ph.D. 1985. Cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength in lower-limb disabled males.
S. Murray M.Sc. 1985. Metabolic changes in women during continuous exercise in cold environments.
B. Urch M.Sc. 1985. Passive exposure to cigarette smoke and suggestibility.
G. Kerr Ph.D. 1989. Psychogenic stress and athletic performance.
T. Verde Ph.D. 1990. Immune function and over-training of athletes.
J. Reading M.Sc. 1990 . Peripheral circulatory function in heart failure.
L. Noreau Ph.D. 1991. Factors influencing work capacity of wheelchair disabled.
S. Shinder M.Sc. 1991. Restoration of body mass and energy consumption in anorexia nervosa.
S. Muller M.Sc. 1993. The effect of a high soluble fibre breakfast cereal on serum lipids when diets are low in saturated fat and cholesterol.
M. Bluechardt Ph.D. 1994. Effects of an after-school physical activity program on motor proficiency and social skills of learning disabled
children aged 8-11 years.
Y. Aoyagi Ph.D. 1996. Effects of training and heat acclimation on heat/exercise tolerance of men wearing protective clothing.
Y. Severs M.Sc. 1996. Effects of heat and repeated exercise on immune responses.
I. Brenner Ph.D. 1997. A study on the effects of exercise and heat exposure on various markers of stress: Interaction with cytolytic (NK) cells
G. Gannon Ph.D. 1998. Peripheral blood lymphocyte trafficking and natural killer cell cytolytic activity during prolonged, exhaustive aerobic
exercise: A focus on cell adhesion molecules and beta-endorphin,
S. Rhind Ph.D. 1998. Human immune responses to acute and chronic exercise. Regulation of natural killer cell activity by cytokines and
S. Shore Ph.D. 1998. The effect of a moderate training program on T, B, and natural killer cell number and function in normal adults, normal
children and children with cancer.
Dr. S. Vetencourt - Venezuela 1969/70.
Dr. K. Yamaji - Toyama University 1976/77.
Dr. Noburu Niwa - Tokyo University 1978/79.
Dr. T. Song - Lakehead University 1979/80.
Dr. M. Radomski - DCIEM 1981/83.
Dr. Da Hong Zhuo - People’s Republic of China 1981/83.
Dr. G. Godin - Laval University 1981/83.
Dr. D. Rennie - Vice Pres. S.U.N.Y. Buffalo 1985/86.
Dr. E. Varrik - Tartu University 1988/89.
Dr. J.Levinsh - Riga University 1990.
Dr. R. Norman - Waterloo University 1990/91.
Dr. S. Shinkai - Toyama University, Japan 1990/91.
Dr. K. Ebrahim - Gilan University, Iran 1991/92.
Dr. A. Chapman - Simon Fraser University 1991/92.
Dr. M. Suzui - Tokyo University 1993/1994.
Dr. Y. Ojiri- Tokyo University 1999/2000.
Selected International Graduate Examinations
A. Vuillemin, Faculté du Sport, Université de Nancy: Quantification de l’activité physique passée: mesure et rôle pronostique sur l’état de santé (Masse osseuse et fonction musculaire) Ph.D. 1998.